Scientists discover new neurons in inner ear: Here's something interesting

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Representational Image
Representational Image

New Delhi : Our brain is a complex network of neurons which serves as the building blocks of the nervous system, transmitting information to and from the brain and throughout our body. To surprise you, a human brain contains around 100 billion neurons. Isn't it amazing? Now, there is a little addition as a team of Swedish researchers has discovered three new types of neurons in the peripheral auditory system. Take a look at the mentioned information to know about the latest discovery.

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered three new types of neurons in the peripheral auditory system. These neurons carry auditory signals from the ear to the brain and may hold the secrets to treating hearing disorders like tinnitus.

They explains the phenomena, like, at the point when sound reaches the internal ear, it is changed over into electrical signs that are handed-off to the brain by means of the ear’s nerve cells in the cochlea. Already, the greater part of these cells was thought to be of two kinds: type 1 and type 2 neurons, type 1 transmitting the majority of the sound-related data.

One more analysis by the researchers at Karolinska Institutet demonstrates that the type 1 cells really include three very different cell types, which counts with prior research indicating varieties in the electrical properties and the sonic reaction of type 1 cells.

The research leader, Franc╠žois Lallemend, at the Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, said, “We now know that there are three different routes into the central auditory system, instead of just one. This makes us better placed to understand the part played by the different neurons in hearing. We’ve also mapped out which genes are active in the individual cell types.”

“Our study can open the way for the development of genetic tools that can be used for new treatments for different kinds of hearing disorders, such as tinnitus. Our mapping can also give rise to different ways of influencing the function of individual nerve cells in the body.”

The experts, first conducted the study on mice and used the used a new technique of single-cell RNA sequencing. The outcome is a list of the genes expressed in the nerve cells, which can give researchers a strong foundation for better understanding the sound-related system and also to devise new treatments and medications.

The findings suggests that the newly discovered three neuron composes most likely have an impact in the translating of sonic intensity (i.e. volume), a capacity that is crucial amid discussions in a loud situation, which depend on the capacity to sift through the background noise. This property is likewise vital in various types of hearing the issue, for example, tinnitus or hyperacusis.

Dr Lallemend said, “Once we know which neurons cause hyperacusis we’ll be able to start investigating new therapies to protect or repair them. The next step is to show what effect these individual nerve cells have on the auditory system, which can lead to the development of better auditory aids such as cochlear implants.”