Anal fissure: All you need to know about symptoms, treatment and causes

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Anal fissure: All you need to know about symptoms, treatment and causes
Anal fissure: All you need to know about symptoms, treatment and causes

Anal fissure is usually diagnosed by inserting an anoscope into the rectum to make it easier to see the tear.In case of rectal bleeding, endoscopic evaluation is conducted by using a rigid or flexible tube like medical instrument. 

New Delhi :  An anal fissure is a cut or tear that occurs in the anus and extends upwards into the anal canal. The kind of problem is common condition of the anus and anal canal which cause pain, sometimes severe, during the bowel movement. It has been seen that most infant suffer from rectal bleeding due to anal fissure. And, both young old people, irrespective of sex suffer from this problem anytime in their life. 

Anal fissures occur in the specialized tissue that lines the anus and anal canal, called anoderm. At a line just inside the anus, the skin of the inner buttocks changes to anoderm. This particular area has no hairs, sweat glands and instead, contains large number of sensory nerves that can easily react to light touch and pain.

Symptoms of Anal Fissure

The primary symptom of anal fissures is pain during and following bowel movements. Other symptoms that may occur are:

  • Bleeding
  • Itching in the anal area
  • Malodorous discharge
  • Sharp pain during bowel movement
  • Tear in the skin around anus
  • Small lump of skin next to the tear

What causes anal fissure?

Anal fissures are caused by disturbing experience usually during bowel movement, meaning, when passing large or hard stools. Sometimes, chronic constipation, frequent diarrhea can also tear the skin around anus. Also, during childbirth, the pressure to the skin between the posterior vagina and the anus may cause a tear that may extend into the anoderm. The most common location for an anal fissure in both men and women (90% of all fissures) is the midline posteriorly in the anal canal, the part of the anus nearest the spine.

In very rare cases, chronic anal fissure may develop due to anal cancer, HIV, Tuberculosis, Syphilis and Herpes.

Treatment of Anal Fissure

Most anal fissure doesn’t require extensive medical treatment. One can treat this health problem by making a little change in the daily diet routine, following some exercises at home. These home remedies can treat anal fissures symptoms:

  • Using stool softeners
  • Drinking more fluids to avoid the possibility of constipation
  • Taking fiber supplements and eating more fibrous foods, such as raw fruits and vegetables
  • Taking warm baths called sitz baths to relax the anal muscles, relieve irritation, and increase blood flow to the anorectal area
  • Applying a nitroglycerin ointment to the anus to promote blood flow to the area or a hydrocortisone cream, such as Cortizone 10, to help with inflammation
  • Applying topical pain relievers, such as lidocaine, to get relief from discomfort

Also, health experts suggest Botox injections into the anal sphincter, calcium channel blocker ointment to relax the sphincter muscle and promote healing of the anal fissure.